All Articles



  • OSI layer 2
  • no defined physical layer

    • typically on VHF(very high frequency), UHF(ultra high frequency)
  • HDLC transmitted with NRZI
  • has a variable length address field containing a source address, zero or more repeater addresses and a destination address.
  • the addresses derive from the station call signs.
  • Media access control follows CSMA/CR


  1. Chepponis, M., & Karn, P. (1987, August). The KISS TNC: A simple Host-to-TNC communications protocol. In /6th Computer Networking Conference/ (Vol. 225, pp. 06111-1494).